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He Who Told Every Man That He Was Equal To His King Could Hardly Want An Audience

But the truth is that the knowledge of external nature, and the sciences which that knowledge requires or includes, are not the great or the frequent business of the human mind. Whether we provide for action or conversation, whether we wish to be useful or pleasing, the first requisite is the religious and moral knowledge of right and wrong; the next is an acquaintance with the history of mankind, and with those examples which may be said to embody truth and prove by events the reasonableness of opinions. Prudence and Justice are virtues and excellences of all times and of all places; we are perpetually moralists, but we are geometricians only by chance. Our intercourse with intellectual nature is necessary; our speculations upon matter are voluntary and at leisure. Physiological learning is of such rare emergence that one man may know another half his life without being able to estimate his skill in hydrostaticks or astronomy, but his moral and prudential character immediately appears.

Milton when he undertook this answer was weak of body and dim of sight; but his will was forward, and what was wanting of health was supplied by zeal. He was rewarded with a thousand pounds, and his book was much read; for paradox, recommended by spirit and elegance, easily gains attention: and he who told every man that he was equal to his King could hardly want an audience.

His political notions were those of an acrimonious and surly republican, for which it is not known that he gave any better reason than that "a popular government was the most frugal; for the trappings of a monarchy would set up an ordinary commonwealth." It is surely very shallow policy, that supposes money to be the chief good; and even this without considering that the support and expence of a Court is for the most part only a particular kind of traffick, by which money is circulated without any national impoverishment.

It has been observed that they who most loudly clamour for liberty do not most liberally grant it. What we know of Milton's character in domestick relations is, that he was severe and arbitrary. His family consisted of women; and there appears in his books something like a Turkish contempt of females, as subordinate and inferior beings. That his own daughters might not break the ranks, he suffered them to be depressed by a mean and penurious education. He thought woman made only for obedience, and man only for rebellion.


Ground Zero


The wisdom of the nation is very reasonably supposed to reside in the parliament. What can be concluded of the lower classes of the people, when in one of the parliaments, summoned by Cromwell, it was seriously proposed, that all the records in the Tower should be burnt, that all memory of things past should be effaced, and that the whole system of life should commence anew ?

Samuel Johnson : The Lives of the Poets --- Milton



Sigh No More My Lady
"Sigh No More"


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The Condition Of All Earthly Things

at 6:00 pmblog (Charles I, Correctitude, Other Writ, Royalism, Spengler, Stuarts)

If all these things aforesaid were indeed performed, as we haue shewed them in words, you should haue a perfect Orchard in nature and substance, begunne to your hand; And yet are all these things nothing, if you want that skill to keepe and dresse your trees. Such is the condition of all earthly things, whereby a man receiueth profit or pleasure, that they degenerate presently without good ordering. Man himselfe left to himselfe, growes from his heauenly and spirituall generation, and becommeth beastly, yea deuillish to his owne kind, vnlesse he be regenerate No maruell then, if Trees make their shootes, and put their spraies disorderly. And truly ( if I were worthy to iudge ) there is not a mischiefe that breedeth greater and more generall harme to all the Orchard ( especially if they be of any continuance ) that euer I saw, ( I will not except three ) then the want of the skilfull dressing of trees. It is a common and vnskilfull opinion, and saying. Let all grow, and they will beare more fruit: and if you lop away superfluous boughes, they say, what a pitty is this ? How many apples would these haue borne? not considering there may arise hurt to your Orchard, as well ( nay rather ) by abundance, as by want of wood. Sound and thriuing plants in a good soile, will euer yeeld too much wood, and disorderly, but neuer too little. So that a skilfull and painfull Arborist, need neuer want matter to effect a plentifull and well drest Orchard: for it is an easie matter to take away superfluous boughes ( if your Gardner haue skill to know them ) whereof your plants will yeeld abundance, and skill will leaue sufficient well ordered. All ages both by rule and experience doe consent to a pruining and lopping of trees: yet haue not any that I know described vnto vs ( except in darke and generall words ) what or which are those superfluous boughes, which we must take away, and that is the chiefe and most needfull point to be knowne in lopping. And we may well assure our selues, ( as in all other Arts, so in this ) there is a vantage and dexterity, by skill, and an habite by practise out of experience, in the performance hereof for the profit of mankind; yet doe I not know ( let me speake it with the patience of our cunning Arborists ) any thing within the compasse of humane affaires so necessary, and so little regarded, not onely in Orchards, but also in all other timber trees, where or whatsoeuer.

Of the right dressing of trees

William Lawson -- A New Orchard And Garden : Or, The best way for planting, grafting, and to make any ground good, for a Rich Orchard: Particularly in the North and generally for the whole kingdome of England, as in nature, reason, situation, and all probabilitie, may and doth appeare. 1631



Charles at the Commons

Charles West Cope --- Attempted Arrest of Five Members of the House of Commons by Charles I



17th Century Garden



A. Al these squares must bee set with trees, the Gardens and other ornaments must stand in spaces betwixt the trees, & in the borders & fences.

B. Trees 20. yards asunder.

C. Garden Knots.

D. Kitchen garden.

E. Bridge.

F. Conduit.

G. Staires.

H. Walkes set with great wood thicke.

I. Walkes set with great wood round about your Orchard.

K. The out fence.

L. The out fence set with stone-fruite.

M. Mount. To force earth for a mount, or such like set it round with quicke, and lay boughes of trees strangely intermingled tops inward, with the earth in the midle.

N. Still-house.

O. Good standing for Bees, if you haue an house.

P. If the riuer run by your doore, & vnder your mount, it will be pleasant.



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Night’s Black Bird

at 4:30 pm (Charles I, Melancholy, Music, Other Writ, Stuarts)

Flow my teares fall from your springs,
Exilde for ever: Let me morne
Where nights black bird hir sad infamy sings,
There let me live forlorne.

Downe vaine lights shine you no more,
No nights are dark enough for those
That in dispaire their last fortunes deplore,
Light doth but shame disclose.

Never may my woes be relieved,
Since pittie is fled,
And teares, and sighes, and grones
My wearie days of all joyes have deprived.

From the highest spire of contentment,
My fortune is throwne,
And feare, and griefe, and paine
For my deserts, are my hopes since hope is gone.

Hark you shadowes that in darkesse dwell,
Learn to contemne light,
Happy that in hell
Feele not the worlds despite.

John Dowland : Flow My Tears


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Jenips & Ervin Lumauag

Girl in Black Dress

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IV : Open The Door">Herbert IV : Open The Door

So as his Majesty, abandoning all Thoughts of earthly Concerns, continued in Prayer and Meditation,and concluded with a chearful Submission to the Will and Pleasure of the Almighty, saying, He was ready to resign himself into the Hands of Christ Jesus, being with the Kingly Prophet, shut up in the hands of his enemies ; as is expressed in the 31st Psalm, and the 8th Verse.

Colonel Hacker then knock'd easily at the King's Chamber Door, Mr. Her­bert being within, would not stir to ask who it was; but knocking the second time a little louder, the King bade him go to the Door. He guess'd his Business. So Mr. Herbert demanding. Wherefore he knock'd ? The Colonel said, he would speak with the King. The King said, Let him come in. The Colonel in trem­bling manner came near, and told his Majesty, It was time to go to White-Hall, where he might have some fur­ther time to rest. The King bad him go forth, he would come presently. Some time his Majesty was private, and after­wards taking the good Bishop by the Hand, looking upon him with a chearful Countenance, he said, Come, let us go ; and bidding Mr. Herbert, take with him the Silver Clock, that hung by the Bed side, said, Open the Door, Hacker has given us a Second Warn­ing. Through the Garden the King, pass'd into the Park, where making a stand, he ask'd Mr. Herbert the Hour of the Day ; and taking the Clock into his Hand, gave it him, and bade him keep it in memory of him ; which Mr. Herbert keeps accordingly.

The Park had several Companies of Foot drawn up, who made a Guard on either side as the King passed, and a Guard of Halberdiers in company went some before, and other some followed ; the Drums beat, and the Noise was so great as one could hardly hear what another spoke.

Upon the King's Right-Hand went the Bishop, and Colonel Tomlinson on his left, with whom his Majesty had some Discourse by the way ; Mr. Herbert was next the King ; after him the Guards. In this manner went the King through the Park ; and coming to the Stair, the King passed along the Galleries unto his Bed-chamber, where, after a little Repose, the Bishop went to Prayer; which, being done, his Ma­jesty bid Mr. Herbert bring him some Bread and Wine, which being- brought, the King broke the Manchet, and eat a Mouthful of it, and drank a small Glassfull of Claret-Wine, and then was some­time in private with the Bishop, expect­ing when Hacker would the third and last time give warning. Mean time his Majesty told Mr. Herbert which Satin Night-Cap he would use, which being provided, and the King at private Prayer, Mr. Herbert address'd himself to the Bishop, and told him, The King had ordered him to have a White Satin Night-Cap ready, but was not able to endure the sight of that Violence they upon the Scaffold would offer the King The good Bishop bid him then give him the Cap, and wait at the end of the Banquetting-House, near the Scaffold, to take care of the King's Body ; for ( said he ) that, and his Interment, will be our last Office.

Colonel Hacker came soon after to the Bed-Chamber-Door, and gave his last signal; the Bishop and Mr. Herbert, weeping, fell upon their Knees, and the King gave them his Hand to kiss, and help'd the Bishop up, for he was aged.

Colonel Hacker attending still at the Chamber-Door, the King took notice of it, and said, Open the Door, and bade Hacker go, he would follow. A Guard was made all along the Galleries and the Banqueting-House ; but behind the Soldiers abundance of Men and Women crowded in, though with some Peril to their Persons, to behold the saddest sight England ever saw. And as his Majesty pass'd by,with a chearful Look, heard them pray for him, the Soldiers not rebuking any of them; by their silence and dejected Faces seeming afflicted rather than insulting. There was a Passage broken through the Wall by which the King pass'd unto the Scaffold ; where, after his Majesty had spoken a little, the fatal Stroke was given by a disguised Person.

Mr. Herbert, during this, was at the Door lamenting; and the Bishop coming thence with the Royal Corps, which was immediately coffin'd, and covered with a black Velvet-Pall ; he and Mr. Herbert went with it to the Back-Stairs to be embalmed. Mean time they went into the Long-Gallery, where chancing to meet the General, he ask'd Mr. Her­bert, how the King did ? Which he thought strange ( it seems thereby that the General knew not what had passed, being all that Morning ( as indeed at other times ) using his Power and In­terest to have the Execution deferred for some days, forbearing his coming among the Officers, and fully resolv'd, with his own Regiment, to prevent the Exe­cution, or have it deferr'd till he could make a Party in the Army to second his Design ; but being with the Officers of the Army then at Prayer, or Discourse in Colonel Harrison's Apartment ( being a Room at the hither end of that Gallery looking towards the Privy-Garden ) His Question being answer'd, the General seem'd much surpriz'd ; and walking further in the Gallery, they were met by another great Commander, Cromwell, who knew what had so lately passed ; for he told them, They should have Orders for the King's Burial speedily.

The Royal Corps being embalmed and coffined, and those wrapt in Lead, and covered with a new Velvet-Pall, was removed to the King's House at St James's, where was great pressing by all sorts of People to see the King, or where he was ; A doleful Spectacle ! but few had leave to enter and behold it.

Sir Thomas Herbert : Memoirs of the Two Last Years of the Reign of KING CHARLES I — 1839 4th edition.

Crofts Charles the First

Ernest Crofts --- Charles the First on His Way to Execution


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III : Death Is Not Terrible To Me">Herbert III : Death Is Not Terrible To Me

at 3:15 amblog (Charles I, Correctitude, Other Writ, Stuarts, The King of Terrors)

That Night, after which Sentence was pronounc'd in Westminster-Hall, Colonel Hacker ( who then commanded the Guards about the King ) would have plac'd two Musqueteers in the King's Bed-Chamber, which his Majesty being acquainted with, he made no Reply, only gave a Sigh ; howbeit the good Bishop and Mr. Herbert, apprehending the Horrour of it, and Disturbance it would give the King in his Meditations and Preparation for his Departure out of this uncomfortable World ; also re­presenting the Barbarousness of such an Act, they never left the Colonel till he reversed his Order by withdrawing these Men.

After the Bishop was gone to his Lodging, the King continu'd reading and praying more than two Hours after. The King commanded Mr. Herbert to lie by his Bed-side upon a Pallat, where he took small rest, that being the last Night his Gracious Sovereign and Mas­ter enjoy'd ; but nevertheless the King for Four Hours or thereabouts, slept soundly,and awaking about Two Hours afore day, he open'd his Curtain to call Mr. Herbert; there being a great Cake of Wax set in a Silver Bason, that then as at all other times burned all Night; so that he perceiv'd him somewhat disturb'd in sleep; but calling him, bad him rise ; For, ( said his Majesty ) I will get up having a great Work to do this Day ; however he would know why he was so troubled in his sleep ? He reply'd May it please your Majesty I was dream­ing. I would know your Dream, said the King; which being told his Ma­jesty said, It was remarkable. Herbert, this is my Second Marriage-Day ; I would be as trim to day as may be ; for before Night I hope to be espoused to my blessed Jesus. He then appointed what Cloaths he would wear; Let me have a Shirt on more than ordinary, said the King, by reason the season is so sharp as probably may make me shake, which some Observers will imagine pro­ceeds from fear. I would have no such Imputation. I fear not Death ! Death is not terrible to me. I bless my God I am prepar'd.

These, or Words to this effect, his Majesty spoke to Mr. Herbert, as he was making ready. Soon after came Dr. Juxon Bishop of London precisely at the time his Majesty the Night be­fore had appointed him. Mr. Herbert then falling upon his Knees, humbly beg'd his Majesty's Pardon, if he had at any time been negligent in his Duty, whilst he had the Honour to serve him. The King thereupon gave him his Hand to kiss, having the day before been graciously pleased, under his Royal Hand, to give him a Certificate, expressing, That the said Mr. Herbert, was not impos'd upon him, but by his Majesty made choice of to attend him in his Bed-Chamber, and had serv'd him with Faithfulness and Loyal Affec­tion. At the same time his Majesty also deliver'd him his Bible, in the Margin whereof he had with his own hand writ many Annotations and Quotations, and charged him to give it the Prince so soon as he returned ; repeating what he had enjoyned the Princess Elizabeth, his Daughter, That he would be dutiful and indulgent to the Queen his Mother ( to whom his Majesty writ two days before by Mr. Seymour ) affectionate to his Brothers and Sisters, who also were to be observant and dutiful to him their Sovereign; and for as much as from his Heart he had forgiven his Enemies, and in perfect Charity with all Men would leave the World, he had advised the Prince his Son to exceed in Mercy, not in rigour; and, as to Episcopacy, it was still his Opinion, That it is of Apostolique Institution, and in this Kingdom exercised from the Primitive Times, and therein, as in all other his Affairs pray'd God to vouchsafe him, both in reference to Church and State, a pious and a discerning Spirit; and that it was his last and earnest Request, that he would frequently read the Bible, which in all the time of his Affliction had been his best lnstructor and Delight; and to meditate upon what he read ; as also such other Books as might improve his Knowledge. He likewise command­ed Mr. Herbert to give his Son,the Duke of York, his large Ring Sun-Dial of Silver, a Jewel his Majesty much valu'd; it was invented and made by Mr. Delamaine, an able Mathematician, who projected it, and in a little printed Book shew'd its excellent Use, in resolving many Questions in Arithmetick, and other rare Operations to be wrought by it in the Mathematicks. To the Princess Elizabeth Doctor Andrews's Sermons ( he was Prelate of the most noble Order of the Garter, as he was Bishop of Win­chester ), Archbishop Laud against Fisher the Jesuit, which Book ( the King said ) would ground her against Popery, and Mr. Hooker's Ecclesias­tical Polity. To the Duke of Glou­cester, King James's Works, and Dr. Hammond's Practical Catechism, Cas­sandra to the Earl of Lindsey, the Lord High Chamberlain. And his Gold Watch to the Dutchess of Richmond. All which, as opportunity serv'd, Mr. Herbert deliver'd.

His Majesty then bade him with­draw ; for he was about an hour in pri­vate with the Bishop ; and being call'd in, the Bishop went to Prayer ; and reading also the 27th Chapter of the Gospel of St. Matthew, which relateth the Passion of our Blessed Saviour. The King, after the Service was done, ask'd the Bishop, If he had made choice of that Chapter, being so applicable to his present Condition ? The Bishop reply'd, May it please your Gracious Majesty, it is the proper Lesson for the Day, as ap­pears by the Kalender; which the King was much affected with, so aptly serv­ing as a seasonable Preparation for his Death that Day.

Sir Thomas Herbert : Memoirs of the Two Last Years of the Reign of KING CHARLES I --- 1839 4th edition.


Charles the First



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II : The Door Unto Eternity">Herbert II : The Door Unto Eternity

at 4:45 am (Charles I, Correctitude, Other Writ, Stuarts, The King of Terrors)

The Pres­id­ent then gave Judg­ment again­st the King, who at the President’s pro­noun­cing it, was observ’d to smile, and lift up his Eyes to Heav­en ; as ap­pealing to the Divine Majesty, the most supreme Judge.

The King, at the rising of the Court, was with a Guard of Hal­berdiers re­turned to White-Hall in a close Chair, through King-Street, both sides where­of had a Guard of Foot-Soldiers, who were silent as his Majesty pass’d. But Shop-Stalls and Win­dows were full of Peo­ple, many of which shed Tears, and some of them with aud­ible Voices pray’d for the King, who through the Privy-Garden was car­ried to his Bed-Chamber ; whence, after Two Hours space, he was removed to St. James’s. Noth­ing of the Fear of Death, or In­dignities offered, seem’d a Ter­ror, or provok’d him to Impa­tience, nor utter’d he a reproach­ful Word reflect­ing upon any of his Judges ( albeit he well knew that some of them had been his Domes­tic Ser­vants ) or again­st any Mem­ber of the House, or Officer of the Army ; so won­der­ful was his Patience, though his Spir­it was great, and might oth­er­wise have expressed his Resent­ments upon sev­er­al occa­sions. It was a true Chris­tian-Fortitude to have the Mas­tery of his Pas­sion, and Sub­mis­sion to the Will of God under such Tempta­tions.
The King now bid­ding farewel to the World, his whole busi­ness was a ser­i­ous Pre­par­a­tion for Death, which opens the Door unto Etern­ity; in order there­un­to, he laid aside all oth­er Thoughts, and spent the remainder of his time in Pray­er and oth­er pious Exer­cises of Devo­tion, and in con­fer­ence with that meek and learned Bish­op Dr. Juxon, who under God, was a great Sup­port to him in his afflic­ted con­di­tion.

Mr. Her­bert about this time going to the Cock­pit near White-Hall, where the Earl of Pem­broke’s Lodgings were, he then, as at sun­dry oth­er times, en­quired how his Majesty did, and gave his humble Duty to him, and withal, ask’d him, If his Majesty had the Gold Watch he sent for, and how he liked it. Mr. Her­bert assured his Lord­ship, the King had not yet received it. The Earl fell presently into a Pas­sion, mar­velling there­at; being the more trou­bled, lest his Majesty should think him care­less, in observing his Com­mands ; and told Mr. Her­bert, at the King’s com­ing to St. James’s, as he was sit­ting under the great Elm-Tree, near Sir Ben­jamin Rud­di­er’s Lodge in the Park, see­ing a con­sid­er­able Military-Officer of the Army pass towards St. James’s, he went to meet him, and demand­ing of him, If he knew his Cous­in Tom Her­bert, that waited on the King ? The Officer said, He did, and was going to St. James’s. The Earl then delivered to him the Gold Watch that had the Alarm, desir­ing him to give it Mr. Her­bert, to present it to the King. The Officer prom­ised the Earl he would imme­di­ately do it. My Lord ( said Mr. Her­bert ) I have sun­dry times seen and pass’d by that Officer since, and do assure your Lord­ship he hath not deliver’d it me accord­ing to your Order and his Prom­ise, nor said any thing to me con­cerning it, nor has the King it I am cer­tain. The Earl was very angry; and gave the Officer his due Char­ac­ter, and threatened to ques­tion him. But such was the sever­ity of the Times, that it was then judged dan­ger­ous to reflect upon such a Per­son, being a Favour­ite of the time, so as no notice was taken of it. Nev­er­the­less, Mr. Her­bert ( at the Earl’s desire ) acquain­ted his Majesty there­with, who gave the Earl his Thanks,and said, Ah ! Had he not told the Officer it was for me, it would prob­ably have been delivered ; he well knew how short a time I could enjoy it. This Rela­tion is in pro­sec­u­tion of what it formerly mention’d, con­cern­ing the Clock or Alarm-Watch his Majesty inten­ded to dis­pose of, as is declared.

That Even­ing, Mr. Seamour ( a Gen­tle­man then attend­ing the Prince of Wales in his Bed-Chamber ) by Colo­nel Hack­er’s per­mis­sion, came to his Majesty’s Bed-Chamber Door, desir­ing to speak with the King from the Prince of Wales; being admit­ted, he pre­sented his Majesty with a Let­ter from his High­ness the Prince of Wales, bear­ing date from the Hag­ue the 23d day of Janu­ary -48. ( Old Stile ). Mr. Seamour, at his Entrance, fell into a Pas­sion, hav­ing formerly seen his Ma­jesty in a glor­i­ous State, and now in a dol­or­ous; and hav­ing kiss’d the King’s Hand, clasp’d about his Legs, lament­ably mourn­ing. Hack­er came in with the Gen­tle­men and was abash’d.

Sir Thomas Her­bert : Mem­oirs of the Two Last Years of the Reign of KING CHARLES I  —  1839 4th edi­tion.

Charles I at trial



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Herbert I : Not Varying From His Principle

Monday the 22d. of January, Col. Hacker brought his Majesty the Second time before the Court, then sitting, as formerly in Westminster-Hall. Now the more noble the Person is, the more heavy is the Spectacle, and enclines generous Hearts to a Sympathy in his Sufferings ; here it was otherwise; for so soon as his Majesty came into West­minster-Hall, some Soldiers made a hideous Cry for Justice, Justice ; some of the Officers joyning with them. At which uncouth Noise the King seem'd somewhat abash'd, but overcame it with Patience. Sure, to persecute a distress­ed Soul, and to vex him that is already wounded at the Heart, is the very pitch of Wickedness ; yea, the utmost Extremity Malice can do, or Affliction suffer, saith Dr. Andrews, the Learned Bishop of Win­chester, in one of his Sermons upon the Passion, preach'd before Queen Elizabeth upon Good-Friday, and here applicable. As his Majesty returned from the Hall to Cotton-House, a Souldier that was upon the Guard, said aloud, as the King pass'd by, God bless you, Sir. The King thank'd him ; but an uncivil Officer struck him with his Cane upon the Head ; which his Majesty observ­ing, said The Punishment exceeded the Offence. Being come to his Apartment in Cotton-House, he immediately, upon his Knees, went to Prayer. Afterwards he asked Mr. Herbert if he heard that Cry of the Soldiers for Justice ? Who answer'd, he did, and marvell'd thereat. So did not I ( said the King ) for l am well assur'd the Soldiers bear no Malice to me ; The Cry was, no doubt given by their Officers, for whom the Soldiers would do the like, were there occasion.

His Majesty likewise demanded of him, How many there were that sate in the Court, and who they were ? He replied, They were upwards of Three­score, some of them Members of the House of Commons, others were Com­manders in the Army, and other some Citizens of London ; some of them he knew, but not all. The King then said, He view'd all of them, but knew not the Faces of above Eight, and those he named.

Tuesday the 23d of January, the King was the Third time summoned, and, as formerly, guarded to the Court; where ( as at other times ) he persisted in his Judgment, That they had no legal Jurisdiction or Authority to proceed after that manner against him. Upon which, the Solicitor began to offer something to the President of the Court, but was interrupted by the King, gently laying his Staff upon the Solicitor's Arm, the Head of which being Silver, happen'd to fall off, which Mr. Herbert ( who as his Majesty appointed, waited near his Chair ) stoop'd to take up; but falling on the contrary side, to which he could not reach, the King took it up himself. This by some was look'd upon as a bad Omen.

The Court sate but a little while that day ; the King not varying from his Principle. At his going back to Cotton-House, there were many Men and Women, who ( not without some Ha­zard ) crowded into the Passage behind the Soldiers, that as his Majesty pass'd, said aloud, God Almighty preserve your Majesty. The King return'd them Thanks for their Prayers.

Sir Thomas Herbert : Memoirs of the Two Last Years of the Reign of KING CHARLES I --- 1839 4th edition.


Charles I coin


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Since Then None Of These Can Be

at 4:16 amblog (Charles I, Other Writ, Poetry, Royalism, Stuarts)

LONG in thy Shack­els, liber­ty,
I ask not from these walls, but thee ;
Left for a while anoth­ers Bride,
To fancy all the world beside.

Yet e’re I do begin to love,
See ! How I all my objects prove ;
Then my free Soule to that con­fine,
‘Twere pos­sible I might call mine.

First I would be in love with Peace,
And her rich swell­ing breasts increase ;
But how alas ! how may that be,
Des­pising Earth, she will love me ?

Faine would I be in love with War,
As my deare Just aven­ging star ;
But War is loved so ev’ry where,
Ev’n He dis­daines a Lodging here.

Thee and thy wounds I would bemoane
Faire thorough-shot Reli­gion ;
But he lives only that kills thee,
And who so bind­es thy hands, is free.

I would love a Par­lia­ment
As a maine Prop from Heav’n sent ;
But ah ! Who’s he that would be wed­ded
To th’ fairest body that’s beheaded ?

Next would I court my Liber­ty,
And then my Birth-right, Prop­er­ty ;
But can that be, when it is knowne
There’s noth­ing you can call your owne ?

A Reform­a­tion I would have,
As for our griefes a Sov’raigne salve ;
That is, a cleans­ing of each wheele
Of State, that yet some rust doth feele :

But not a Reform­a­tion so,
As to reforme were to ore’throw ;
Like Watches by unskil­full men
Dis­joyn­ted, and set ill againe.

The Pub­lick Faith I would adore,
But she is banke-rupt of her store ;
Nor how to trust her can I see,
For she that couzens all, must me.

Since then none of these can be
Fit objects for my Love and me ;
What then remaines, but th’ only spring
Of all our loves and joyes ? The KING.

He who being the whole Ball
Of Day on Earth, lends it to all ;
When seek­ing to ecclipse his right,
Blinded, we stand in our owne light.

And now an uni­ver­sall mist
Of Error is spread or’e each breast,
With such a fury edg’d, as is
Not found in th’ inwards of th’ Abysse.

Oh from thy glor­i­ous Starry Waine
Dis­pense on me one sac­red Beame
To light me where I soone may see
How to serve you, and you trust me.

Richard Lovelace : To Lucasta, from Pris­on — An Epode.




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at 4:51 am (Art, Charles I, Melancholy, Self Writ)

Leonardo de Buonarrotto chose to have Artemisia Gentileschi's Inclination muffled with drapery for moralistic reasons which would have scarcely commended themselves to his predecessor Michelangelo, some 50 years after she painted it. Fairly weird, agreed; despite the fact that each age imposes retrospective tastes upon the past --- for moralistic reasons --- which is massively not confined to art.

However, the real question is why during the last 300 years no restorer has been requested to remove these additions . Our churches have been evolving for one to two millennia in this continent, and every now and then excresences of previous taste are expunged... In this case it would seem more appropriate for the original artist's intention to remain pure.

Artemisia, together with her father, was invited to England by the Great King, and painted here for him before the rebellion; but like most of the foreign artists he accumulated had to leave quickly with the onset of war. It is likely she would have agreed with one of his later random jottings:

Rebus in adversis facile est contemnere vitam;
Fortiter ille facit qui miser esse potest

Artemisia Gentileschi --- Allegory Inclination


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But Of All The Lights

The man o' the moon for ever!
The man o' the moon for ever!
We'll drink to him still
In a merry cup of ale
Here's the man o' the moon for ever!

The man o' the moon, here's to him !
How few there be that know him !
But we'll drink to him still
In a merry cup of ale
The man o' the moon, here's to him !

Brave man o' the moon, we hail thee,
The true heart ne'er shall fail thee;
For the day that's gone
And the day that's our own
Brave man o' the moon, we hail thee.

We have seen the bear bestride thee,
And the clouds of winter hide thee,
But the moon is changed
And here we are ranged
Brave man o' the moon, we bide thee.

The man o' the moon for ever !
The man o' the moon for ever !
We'll drink to him still
In a merry cup of ale
Here's the man o' the moon for ever !

We have grieved the land should shun thee,
And have never ceased to mourn thee,
But for all our grief
There was no relief
Now, man o' the moon, return thee.

There's Orion with his golden belt,
And Mars, that burning mover,
But of all the lights
That rule the nights
The man o' the moon for ever !

Cavalier Song c1647




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In The Kingdom Of God

at 11:00 pmblog (Charles I, Correctitude, Other Writ, Royalism, Stuarts)

Hobbes, in the first place, is not here arguing for one form of government more than for another. He prefers monarchy; but his special point is that in every form, monarchic, aristocratic, or democratic, there must be a "sovereign” --- an ultimate, supreme and single authority. Men, he says, admit the claim of a popular State to “absolute dominion,” but object to the claim of a king, though he has the same power and is not more likely, for reasons given, to abuse it. The doctrine which he really opposes is that of a “mixed government.” As “some doctors” hold that there are three souls in one man, others hold that there can be more souls than one in a commonwealth. That is virtually implied when they say that “the power of levying money, which is the nutritive faculty,” depends on a "general assembly”; the “power of conduct and command, which is the motive faculty, on one man; and the power of making laws, which is the rational faculty, on the accidental consent, not only of those two last, but of a third”: this is called “mixed monarchy.” “In truth it is not one independent commonwealth, but three independent factions; nor one representative person but three. In the Kingdom of God there may be three persons independent without breach of unity in God that reigneth; but where men reign that be subject to diversity of opinions, it cannot be so. And therefore if the king bear the person of the people, the general assembly bear the person of the people, and another assembly bear the person of a part of the people, they are not one person, nor one sovereign, but three persons and three sovereigns.” That is to say, the political, like the animal organism, is essentially a unit. So far as there is not somewhere a supreme authority, there is anarchy or a possibility of anarchy. The application to Hobbes’s own times is obvious. The king, for example, has a right to raise ship-money in case of necessity. But who has a right to decide the question of necessity ? If the king, he could raise taxes at pleasure. If the parliament, the king becomes only their pensioner. At the bottom it was a question of sovereignty, and Hobbes, holding the king to be sovereign, holds that Hampden showed “an ignorant impatience of taxation.” “Mark the oppression ! A parliament man of £500 a year, land-taxed 20s.” Hampden was refusing to contribute to his own defence. "All men are by nature provided of notable multiplying glasses, through which every little payment appeareth a great grievance.” Parliament remonstrated against arbitrary imprisonment, the Star Chamber, and so forth; but it was their own fault that the king had so to act. Their refusal to give money “put him ( the king ) upon those extraordinary ways, which they call illegal, of raising money at home.” The experience of the Civil War, he says in the Leviathan, has so plainly shown the mischief of dividing the rights of the sovereign that few men in England fail to see that they should be inseparable and should be so acknowledged “at the next return of peace.”

Men did in fact come to acknowledge it though not for some generations, and then by virtually transferring sovereignty from the king to the parliament. A confused state of mind in the interval was implied in the doctrine which long prevailed, of the importance of a division between the legislative, executive, and judicial powers, and in the doctrine that the British constitution represented a judicious mixture of the three elements, aristocracy, monarchy, and democracy, whose conflicts were regulated by an admirable system of checks and balances. Whatever truth may have been expressed in such theories, they were erroneous so far as inconsistent with Hobbes’s doctrine. A division of the governmental functions is of course necessary, and different classes should be allowed to exercise an influence upon the State. But the division of functions must be consistent with the recognition of a single authority which can regulate and correlate their powers; and a contest between classes, which do not in some way recognise a sovereign arbitrator, leads to civil war or revolution. Who is the sovereign, for example, was the essential question which in the revolt of the American colonies, and in the secession of the Southern States had to be answered by bullets. So long as that question is open, there is a condition of unstable equilibrium or latent anarchy. The State, as Hobbes puts it, should have only one soul, or as we may say, the political organism should have the unity corresponding to a vital principle.

The unity of the Leviathan seemed to imply arbitrary power. Since the king had the power of the sword, said Hobbes, he must also have the power of the purse. The logic might be good, but might be applied the other way. The true Englishman was determined not to pay the money till he knew how it was to be spent; and complained of a loss of liberty if it was taken by force. Hobbes’s reply to this is very forcible and clears his position. He agreed with Johnson that the cry for liberty was cant. What he asks, in his De Cive, is meant by liberty ? If an exemption from the laws, it can exist in no government whatever. If it consist in having few laws, and only those such as are necessary to peace, there is no more liberty in a democracy than in a monarchy. What men really demand is not liberty but “dominion.” People are deceived because in a democracy they have a greater share in public offices or in choosing the officers. It does not follow that they have more liberty in the sense of less law. Hobbes was putting his finger upon an ambiguity which has continued to flourish. Liberty may either mean that a man is not bound by law or that he is only bound by laws which he has made ( or shared in making ) himself. We are quite aware at the present day that a democracy may use the liberty, which in one sense it possesses, by making laws which are inconsistent with liberty in the other sense.

Leslie Stephen : English Men of Letters --- Hobbes

Sir Leslie Stephen was, of course, the author of Virginia Woolf, but we mustn't hold that against him.


Portrait Charles the First

John Millais --- Charles I and his Son in the Studio of Van Dyck



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II : A Small Suitcase">Book-Sorting II : A Small Suitcase

at 3:41 am (Charles I, High Germany, Literature, Royalism, Self Writ)

It continues, as cheerful a task as picking samphire, hanging with one hand to the cliff-edge. The boxes are too large, yet the only bulk purchase available and strong enough, so they'll do for storage at least; the trouble being that for the top 3" one has to add light goods, of which the stock is diminishing.

A brighter note ensued after a visit to the damp garage I maintain far away, filled with boxes that are to be transferred here. Among those I retrieved was a wooden-framed leatherette suitcase, just 12" x 18" x 6". Inside were some things I hadn't seen for at least four years.

Item: Sismondi's History of the Italian Republics, interpreted and recast by Willam Boulting around 1900. I adore this book: admittedly they are just a bunch of republics, and de Sismondi was a 19th century liberal; but... he's not biased against the Ghibellines, either the Imperial earlier type or the later party type. There's just so much there...

Item: Two casts of seals, riders on horse: one, Richard III ( ? ); one Charles II. Typical Victorian plaster-of-paris stuff.

Item: Two stiffed wrist-watches.

Item: Two German Reichbanknotes 1912, 1000 marks each; one 10 mark note of the state of Altona, Oct 1918; three 50 pfennig notes of 1921, two of Mühlhausen, one of Württemberg.

Item: A reproduction set of Mlle. Lenormand's Fortune Telling Playing Cards. Unused. As they shall remain to be.

Item: Perhaps the oldest book I have, a tiny broken 1643 copy of John Sleidan's 1556 'Of The Foure Chiefe Monarchies - or - The Key Of History' ( De quator summis Imperiis libri tres ). A previous owner was Richard Hurt who repeats his signature seven times and the date, 31st May 1661, twice all on one page. One wonders what side he took in the Civil Wars... ( Sleidan died of melancholy. )

Item: assorted paperback histories, modern.

Item: Two small, very old teaspoons; one bronze and perhaps formed with a mallet.

Item: A nibble stick for a hamster. I have never owned a hamster.

Item: Edwardian postcards of Gabrielle Ray.

Item: Edwardian postcards of cats.

Item: sub-MacGill seaside postcards, rather vulgar.

Item: A silver coin of Charles I.

Item: Ripped-off pb covers of girls.

Item: a modern faded reproduction of Durer's squirrels.

Item: A Roman military buckle.

Item: A corkscrew. I don't drink wine.

Item: Assorted magazines

Item: A packet of Wild Forest Blackberry herb teabags. It is totally unlikely I would try any herb tea; and certainly not one whose sell-by date states 1995, so I can only guess I kept in for the box.

Item: An insane pamphlet about the pseudo-royal family, the RCs, the Germans, British Intelligence, The Templars. etc. etc.
Maybe it's unfair to call it insane, since as the author ( N. H. Merton, 1994 ) is democratic, republican, nationalist, and cromwellian, it is as sane as any other production of the minds of people who adhere to any of these creeds. --- It warns that Charles of Windsor understands himself to be the reincarnation of Adolf Hitler, and that he has plans for his oldest son's birthday

'The Prince and his supporters now want William ritually slaughtered when he reaches the age of eighteen on the first summer solstice of the millennium.'

Maybe it rained.

There's more in the box, but that's enough to rifle through.

postcard 1

Gabrielle Ray 01

Muhlhausen banknotes



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True Depression

Jamie Saxt out of character:
He saw something of the terrible catastrophe of a war-torn Europe; he was distressed that it was his own son-in-law who had taken the step which was likely to reduce his peace policy to ashes. So strong was James's belief that he should remain uncommitted that it was not until March that he gave his consent to the raising of volunteers and permitted the City loan to go forward. He worried incessantly and gave vent to his feelings against Frederick: 'It is only by force that he will ever be brought to reason !', he exclaimed. 'If my son-in-law wishes to save the Palatine', he said on another occasion, 'he had better at once consent to a suspension of arms in Bohemia !. He would not allow prayers to be said for Frederick as King of Bohemia. 'James is a strange father', the Prince of Orange reputedly remarked, 'he will neither fight for his children nor pray for them.' No wonder it was reported that the King 'seemed utterly weary'. 'I am not God Almighty', he was heard to mutter, a remark so out of character that in itself it demonstrated his depression. He busied himself with writing a meditation upon St Matthew's Gospel, which he called The Crown of Thorns.

Online biography of Charles I by Pauline Grigg, though easier to read in the printer version...

So so... Usual querulous stuff about him, but well-written.

Good pic though

cover of P. Grigg biog

Charles in character:
Charles was to remain at Windsor until 19 January 1649, while his opponents discussed his fate. A strong party of soldiers still urged his trial and condemnation. Fairfax shrank from such a procedure and kept outside the discussions. Lilburne and his party continued to assert that neither Parliament nor Army had the legal right to try the King and that to do so would be to open the door to further arbitrary government. Cromwell hesitated; even Ireton hung back. The Earl of Denbigh was sent with a secret message to Charles at Windsor which could have paved the way to further negotiation. Charles refused to see him. He would struggle for terms no longer; he could not consult his wife; he would no longer plague his conscience to determine what was right; there was no need to prevaricate; as he had written, they had left him with but the 'husk and shell' of life; he merely had to make his peace with himself, which meant with God, and he was helped by the wide, grey river that symbolized the best of his life. He believed that, except for the betrayal of Strafford, he had acted well; he believed his son would reign after him; he believed his captors were evil men and he knew what to expect. It was consequently easy for him to wait. As he had written: 'That I must die as a Man, is certain, that I may die a King, by the hands of My own Subjects, a violent, sudden, and barbarous death, in the strength of My years, in the midst of My Kingdoms, My Friends and loving Subjects being helpless Spectators, My Enemies insolent Revilers and Triumphers over Mee . . . is so probable in humane Reason, that God hath taught Mee not to hope otherwise.'


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Disdain In Perfection

at 9:42 pmblog (Charles I, Correctitude, Other Writ, Royalism, Stuarts)

The King, in his answer, declined to sur­render him­self, his coun­try and his friends. When his answer was ready it was sent to Den­bigh and the oth­er Com­mis­sion­ers sealed up. This they objec­ted to, say­ing it was not fit for them to receive an answer without being acquain­ted with the con­tents.

The King replied, “What is that to you, who are but to carry what I send ? and if I will send the song of Robin Hood and Little John you must carry it.”

Wine­fride Elwes : The Feild­ing Album



Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
This work by Claverhouse is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported.
Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
This work by Claverhouse is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported.